Qualities of grunts and you may deep grunts developed by territorial males and you may grunts produced by lady of your corkwing wrasse
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Desk 2. For men, amount of music analysed is offered because final amount while the set of audio analysed for every single individual when you look at the brackets. For men, number of nest internet equal what amount of boys registered, for females, it is short for the number of nests at which i observed her or him. Male sound properties was in fact averaged into private level before calculating new showed investigation. Mean ± SD | Average is offered toward level of pulses for every voice, period, heartbeat and you will dominant frequency

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Figure 3. Several heartbeat songs created by new corkwing wrasse. Wave form (top) and you may associated spectrogram (below). (a) Grunt off a good territorial men corkwing wrasse. (b) Deep grunt regarding a territorial men corkwing wrasse. (c) Grunt of a lady corkwing wrasse. Spectrogram setup: 50 dB dynamic range, Hamming screen (increased sine-squared), 0.008 s windows size (female and male grunt), 0.08 s windows duration (male strong grunt)

Profile 3. Multiple heartbeat audio developed by the fresh new corkwing wrasse. Wave-form bunları dene (top) and you will associated spectrogram (below). (a) Grunt out of an excellent territorial male corkwing wrasse. (b) Deep grunt of a beneficial territorial male corkwing wrasse. (c) Grunt out-of a female corkwing wrasse. Spectrogram configurations: fifty dB active variety, Hamming screen (elevated sine-squared), 0.008 s windows duration (men and women grunt), 0.08 s window length (male deep grunt)

Because of the different structure of grunts and deep grunts, we only compared the sound properties statistically, which were the same in both types of grunt, i.e. dominant frequency and duration. The two male grunt types differ significantly from each other in both propertiespared to deep grunts, male grunts are of a shorter duration (t-test: t = 5.44, P < 0.00step step one, CI = ?0.47–1.09). The dominant frequency is higher in male grunts than in male deep grunts (Mann Whitney U test: W = 0, N1 = 17, N2 = 11, P < 0.001). Table 2 presents all measured sound properties for comparison.

Compared to male grunts, female grunts had a significantly lower pulse-rate (t-test: t = -6.71, P < 0.0001, CI = -- -). Grunts of males and females had a similar dominant frequency (t-test: t = 1.38, P = 0.17, CI = -0.05- 0.26), duration (t-test: t = 0.47, P = 0.64, CI = -0.19- 0.26), and number of pulses (Mann Whitney U test: W = 302, N1 = 17, N2 = 35, P = 0.94).

Single-heart circulation audio

Your choice of obviously assignable presses lead to the research out-of 102 men ticks away from 31 video clips of 19 anybody and you will 66 women ticks out of 20 videos within nests from fourteen males. Your selection of demonstrably assignable plops lead to the study out of 73 men plops away from twenty eight videos off 18 videos and you may 66 girls plops regarding 21 video at the nests out of fourteen guys. Averaging male musical per private male contributed to an example size of letter = 18 getting presses, and letter = 17 getting plops.

Clicks are sharp, single-pulse broadband sounds with their main energy in a frequency range of several hundred Hz, while the sound pressure level difference across the harmonics are small (Figure 4(a), Table 3). The dominant frequency of clicks was significantly higher in males than in females (Mann Whitney U test: W = 409, N1 = 35, N2 = 66, P = 0.04). However, there were some female clicks for which the dominant frequency was much higher than in most clicks (up to 7200 Hz). We did not see any technical reason to exclude these outliers from the analysis. Clicks did not differ between males and females in the sound pressure level difference between dominant frequency and its 5 th harmonic (t-test: tforty-eight.cuatro = 0.84, P = 0.40, CI = ?2.17–5.31).